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BOOK ✓ Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism É Benedict Anderson

?أثغلة مثلاً في الإمبراطورية البريطانية التي تخضع لها شعوب غير أوروبية فتنجح في اسكتلندا فقط أما في الهند وغيرها فتتخذ مساراً استعمارياً إذ تنجح في تنمية نخب موالية تساهم في إدارة الهند، ويمكن أيضاً أن ترسل إلى بعض المستعمرات الأخرى في رتب دنيا، وهي نخب تتبنى الإنكليزية لغة ومسلكاً ولكنها تصطدم مع حدودها بين مواطنيها في بلدها وعند الإنكليز وتكتشف أن الإنكليزية لاتكفي لكي تنتمي إلى المتروبول، وهي لاتتحول إلى نخبة بريطانية إمبراطورية فعلاً فتنقلب هذه في الجيل الثاني والثالث إلى نخب قومية ضد الإمبراطورية أو تحيد داخلياً من قبل القومية الشعبية الصاعدة‏أما الييبتة في الإمبراطورية اليابانية فوقعت على مناطق منسجمة إثنياً ولغوياً فنجحت القومية الرسمية إلى حد بعيد وبقي الإمبراطور رمزها بعد تبني القومية والإصلاح الذي جرى على أثر وصول الميجي إلى العرش وعندما طبقت اليابان الأنموذج القومي الإمبراطوري على كوريا والفيلبين وبورما وتايوان فقد واجه المييبثون نفس مشكلة المثقفين الهنود وغيرهم في المستعرات وانتهت التجربة إلى فشل ذريع‏يميز أندرسون في هذا الكتاب بالتدريج من خلال تطوير فرضياته ومن دون أن يخصص فصلاً لذلك بين ثلاثة أنماط من القومية والقومية الرسمية والقومية الشعبية وجمهوريات المواطنين التي جاءت بها الجمهوريات الأميركية إلى العالم كنوع من القومية أي إنه أصبح لقوميات القرن العشرين طابع قياسي نمطي لأنها تستطيع أن تستند إلى هذه التجربة الإنسانية وقبل كل ذلك فإن فكرة «الأمة» هي الآن معششة بقوة وثبات في جميع اللغات الطباعية ولم يعد بإمكان الانتماء القومي أن ينفصل عن السياسي ولم يعد الوعي القومي ينفصل عن الوعي السياسي‏ Since there has been a good deal of chattering about nationalism of late it seemed a good time to finally examine this neglected long term resident on my bookshelves It is a tough slog through impenetrable Marxist jargon and apparent inside jokes Also there are enough dense and eye strain inducing footnotes in my paperback copy to send David Foster Wallace weeping to his thesaurus collection And in addition to untranslated French and German there is I am not making this up untranslated Indonesian On the positive side it is shortMy copy also featured footnotes and commentary by that brainy chick I tricked into marrying me They allowed me to achieve an understanding which I probably would not have achieved on my own A Germanist she also explained what “hausmacht” and other bits of untranslated German in the text meant If you have not had the foresight to be in a long term relationship with a Germanist who has read and selectively highlighted this volume I suggest that you refine your Tinder profile to remedy your lack of foresight before starting this book on your ownIt was a freuent experience to come to an end of a paragraph and realized I had retained nothing of what I had just read I doubted my ability to understand the book as a whole I made regular trips to the brainy chick to check my comprehension She said I was understanding it I think she was sincere but she might have been just trying to get me to go away Anyway here's what I got out of itThe word “reflections” in the titles is a clue that the book is a series of at best loosely connected ideas the author has had about nationalismThink of the first part of this book as the first draft of a cookbook for nations The author implies that no one before now has understood properly how to make a nation from scratch and the previous explanations are almost universally balderdash I'll try not to beat the “cookbook” metaphor to death but the author as cook doesn't supply the exact measurements of various ingredients necessary to make a nation Nor does the author claim that the ingredients listed are all the ingredients necessary to bake a nation Instead he notices that successfully launched nations have had ingredients A B and C and unsuccessful attempts have lacked these ingredients One ingredient if I understand correctly is the largely unintentional creation of a locally born set of civil servants native in birth to the land they live but steeped for a long period in the culture of the occupying colonial power Further this set of civil servants must be allowed to receive education in the capital of the colonial power but then routinely denied the opportunity to rise high enough to work and hold a position of power in that capital Another ingredient is the appearance of “print capitalists” whose products in the local vernacular may include newspapers and books as we understand them today but also could include pamphlets and broadsheets of the type not really seen in most of the world any While explaining this book to me recently above referenced brainy chick casually threw off the observation that the formulation that different newspapers lead to different nations may if true be a disturbing prediction for our times We have just come out of a long period where the number of newspaper television and other mass media outlets were limited first by technological constraints and then perhaps artificially Of course there was some diversity and not everybody had the same opinion but compared to what was before what is now and perhaps what is to come it was a period of comparative harmony borne of everyone agreeing on certain basic assumptions Now that anyone with a computer terminal can generate a story and call it news we may be headed toward a period of birthing new nations again Such births are rarely prettyIn any event given these and maybe other ingredients then the sense of nationhood appears The outward appearance of a nation meaning lines on a map that some indifferent cartographer made decades or centuries ago based on a piece of parchment signed by an ignorant King are not important The random place where a boatload of adventurers made landfall long before the King laid pen to paper are not important If the adventurers had landed further north or south or if the cartographer's pencil had drawn a slightly different line the results would have been the different only in insignificant detail I think that's the message I was supposed to getAs a result we have Chileans Americans Ghanians Indonesians and others living declaring allegiance and pride and sometimes dying for arbitrary lines generated largely by accident long ago On one side the group with which someone shares a vital bond Many perhaps most of members of this group believe their group exceptional and often that a greater power than themselves guided them and their co nationals to this spot making it desirable and worthy of protectionOutside are people who are at least apathetic and perhaps even downright hostile the national narrative goes Depending on circumstance the malevolence of outsiders can be attributed to envy or their allegiance to darker powers either terrestrial or not An interesting opinion expressed in this book is that nationalism is not racism or maybe not racist The argument I think goes like this Nazis were NOT nationalist because they were not prepared to see most visibly Jews as a member of their nation even the German Jews who were enthusiastic about Germany and its culture even to the point of changing their religion On the other hand says Anderson real nationalists are willing to admit any and all regardless of race who will sincerely believe in the superiority of their nation because they the nationalists are simply champions of a nation There are certainly cases where this is true but there are also enough counter examples of groups excluded by self proclaimed nationalists by virtue of different appearance or background to draw this assertion into uestion However probably any debate on this topic will degenerate into an argument about definitions that is of “nationalism” and “nationalist” Another different argument might result if you think that reuiring others to admire you and your group to get the benefits of inclusion is a mind set that co occurs freuently with racism Another contention if I understand correctly which is much difficult to dispute in these days attempts to get people to believe in defend and die for institutions like the European Union NATO and the UN which were not created with the aid of the above mentioned ingredients will collapse in the face of the resolution and combativeness routinely generated by strong love of nation Sometimes it feels like if you read this book and do not agree with author's idiosyncratic interpretations you are likely to be greeted with the adolescent like “Well you would think that wouldn't you?” which is the consistent last refuge of theorists who have nowhere to hide Example near the end of the book the author notes that freuently colonial era drawings and other representations of recently excavated ruins like Angkor are often lacking in human figures This says the author is an implied put down of the present inhabitants of the land by the colonial image makers carrying the message that you present day inhabitants of the land are not capable of such magnificence This is of course possible But also possible and likely in my sight is that the makers of illustrations felt they had on the basis of excavations enough evidence to make a representation of what the building in uestion looked like at the height of its magnificence but did NOT have enough evidence to make a representation of the characteristic skin color clothing and activity of the people who lived and worked there You see? NOT evil hegemons simply people interested in accuracy It's possible right? Being on some odd level an incurable optimist I hope that everything I read or even see or hear will somehow eventually be something practical something useful In this case I hope that understanding this book somehow allow me or perhaps a charming person with better persuasive skills to convince a nationalist that the narrative of history could be different than heshe has imagined up to now Also the nationalist will finally understand that the soil for which heshe is prepared to erect walls and limit liberty is an accident of history A peaceful and inclusive mindset by the nationalist would be the result in my dreamHowever even my imaginary conversations are failures I imagine that even in the unlikely event that I were to convince the nationalist that Anderson's thesis were a truer reading of history the nationalist could easily insist that all of it the print capitalists the native born civil servants the King's arbitrary lines are all evidence of God's hand at work on behalf of his favorite nation It would be they might say the intention of divine power to bring the nationalists and their allies where they are now ie threatening the defenseless in the name of liberty

DOC Imagined Communities

Imagined Communities Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalismيؤكد أندرسن تمييزاً نظرياً وتاريخياً مهماً بين القومية الرسمية التي تنشأ تبني الإمبراطوريات القومية هوية لها عبر محاولة فرض لغة وهوية على مناطق متعددة القوميات من جهة والقومية الشعبية الصاعدة بتحالف الطبقة الوسطى والانتلجنسيا والطبقات الفقيرة والمتشكلة باللغة وبغيرها من خلال السعي لتحقيق حرية الأمة وسيادتها ضدالإمبراطورية غالباً من جهة أخرى، وهو ليس بعيداً من تمييزات ماركس وإنغلز في سياق مختلف بين القومية البولندية والإيرلندية من جهة والقومية الروسية من جهة أخرى، ولكن لايذكرهما في هذا السياق فمع ازدياد انتشار اللغة القومية ومد المشاعر القومية على مستوى شعوب الإمبراطوريات وخاصة الشعوب الكبرى والأكثر قرباً من مقاليد الحكم وتضعضع شرعية السلالات غير القومية الحاكمة التي كانت تعتبر الولاء لها هو الولاء للوطن، في حين ليس لها وطن أصبح لزاماً على أبناء هذه السلالات الذين يحكمون شعوباً أن يتبنوا قومية هذه الشعوب ولغتها التي لم يتكلموها أحياناً، فكما هو معروف كانت الفرنسية لغة بلاط آل رومانوف في سان بطرسبورغ القرن الثامن، وكانت الألمانية لغة الكثير من نبلاء الريف في روسيا وبولندا وأوكرانيا ولاشك في أنه في القرن التاسع عشر ومع بدء نشوء الحركات الشعبية والاشتراكية الرومانسية نشأ خطر تطابق أو على الأقل تداخل الحقد الطبقي مع المشاعر الوطنية والقومية الروسية وبات الموقف المعادي للطبقات الحاكمة موقفاً وطنياً وقومياً روسياً بجد أو يوجد له جذوراً في اللغة والتراث، وفي أعقاب غزو نابليون وحاجة القيصرية إلى تضافر الشعب في الدفاع عن الوطن نشأت الحاجة إلى تبني الارستقراطية الحاكمة للقومية الروسية واقترح الكونت سيرغي أوفاروف UPDATED Amazing how reading this for a different class brought out a totally different discussion The last class I read this for was called Uses of History in International Affairs and we spent the majority of our time talking about history as an act history as narrative history as an agenda what someone might use these statements for We were essentially diplomats in discussion preparing our strategy of attack against the other side's claims I don't think we discussed the validity of his claims at all but rather focused on place they had in world events and history and how these ideas could affect our daily livesThis time I'm in an international history program filled with historians This time we bypassed that discussion entirely taking it for granted as established and agreed on and concentrated on dissecting the arguments presented on their structure and substance in a close analytical read that sought to draw on our knowledge of history to poke holes in his argument This time we are being trained to think of ourselves as peers whose job it is to show the main behind the curtain well mostly because he's there to borrow a phrase It was a trip back to the basics to remind us what these arguments are really about in the end while also forcing us to uestion not to acceptFascinating experience of the lines drawn between various disciplines and their goals how the idea that that's someone else's job has very real effects in the formation of ideasORIGINALBenedict Anderson's Imagined Communities may be over twenty five years old now but that doesn't make it any less relevant even had he not added on the chapters as interesting as they were that he adjusted himself with later on after the fall of the USSR and later with his new ideas on the topic Though I love that he did that it shows someone who is not content to rest on his laurels and whose ideas about the world were not set by the best selling status of one book he wrote and that he refuses to be tied to it I like watching geniuses continue to change and developIn any case It is uite relevant especially since 911 as we see that the impact of nationalism hasn't declined in the least and the attachment that people feel for it is very real and has very real conseuences on people's lives Anderson's basic thesis is that nations are imagined communities created in the New World by the creole bourgeoisie of the British and Spanish colonies by the conjunction of print journalism which allowed groups of people to imagine themselves as a community through providing the links that bound regions together language cultural imprints such as sacred script cultures and the forces of capitalism He is writing this book to be useful to Marxist theorists in order to fill what he feels is the gap in the Marxist analysis of nationalism But it is by no means only useful to the Marxist or even liberal theorist The reminder that nationalism is a new phenomenon and that any pretentious to antiuity by any nation is absolutely ridiculous and even the whole concept of a nation worth dying for is invented not something that as the Abbe Sieyes wrote in the French Revolution perhaps understandably he was trying to turn the nation of peasants into Frenchmen exists in the state of natureAnderson says that nations have three conditions that they are sovereign limited and a community He talks about how these resulted from the specific time and place that the whole concept was invented but also how they have been adapted and used throughout the world One of the major strengths of his book surely influenced by the period of criticism he was writing in is its major focus on areas of the world outside of Europe though many of those areas as most of the world was were European colonies Southeast Asia Latin America China Japan It is fascinating to watch first the process by which he believes nationalism is formed and then nationalism's journey across time and space to crop up in its many different incarnations as various groups constantly find different uses for it This is a book to be read and re read constantly to remind oneself about uestioning some very basic assumptions that a lot of people take for granted and then uestioning why those assumptions exist in the first place I think this book constantly challenges you to look inward and to figure out what matters to you how it got to matter to you so much and how you may or may not have been steered that way by a government leaders education or some other outside force that has nothing to do with natural feelingsI've always had a hugely negative shuddering reaction to two things religious fundamentalism and overbearing nationalism This book helped give me the language as Anderson would say himself to better explain why

Benedict Anderson É Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism TEXT

PDF Ï BOOK Imagined Communities FREE Ê يؤكد أندرسن تمييزاً نظرياً وتاريخياً مهماً بين القومية الرسمية التي تنشأ تبني الإمبراطوريات القومية هوية لها عبر محاولة فرض لغة وهوية على مناطق متعددة القوميات من جهة في تقرير رسمي عام 1832 أن تقوم المملكة على ثلاثة مبادئ هي الأوتوقراطية والأرثوكسية والقومية لقد كان المبدأ الثالث جديداً تماماً بل سابق لأوانه نوعاً ما في عصر كان نصف الأمة لايزالون أقناناً وأكثر من نصفها يحتفظون بلغة أم غير الروسية‏لقد أبدى الموظفون من أمثال أوفاروف وعياً لمصلحة القيصرية أعمق من القياصرة أنفسهم فقد قاومت القيصرية تطبيق الروسنة التي اقترحها طيلة نصف القرن التالي إلى أن أصبحت سياسة رسمية في عهد الكسندر الثالث وذلك بعد زمن من ظهور القوميات الأوكرانية، والفنلندية والليتوانية وسواها ضمن الإمبراطورية ولذلك فإنها ساعدت في توحيد وتشكيل أمة عظيمة كالأمة الروسية بشكل غير مسبوق، ولكنها أيضاً أدت إلى صراعات سيكون لها أثر كبير فيما بعد حتى في نشوء قوميات أخرى‏ماجرى في روسيا في عصر الكسندر الثالث هو ماقامت فيكتوريا فون ساكس كوبرج غوتا بلقبها المثير من حيث مدى تدليله على قوميتها، بتطبيقه كان حكم ملكة انكلترا وإمبراطورة الهند لاحقاً، مفصلياً في انطلاق قومية رسمية على الطريقة اللندنية، وكانت تبدي كثيراً من أوجه التشابه مع الروسنة التي تبناها القيصر الروسي كما أقدمت إمبراطورية آل هبسبورغ هي الأخرى على تبن متأخر للقومية في عملية الألمنة التي تمت وقبلهم تبنت الألمنة بنجاح أكبر سلالة آل «هوهن تسولرن» في بروسيا فساهمت في دعم بسمارك في توحيد ألمانيا أما الألمنة في الإمبراطورية النمساوية الهنغارية فقد ساهمت في تفكيك الإمبراطورية كما حصل أيضاً في حالة تبني آل عثمان للتتريك‏ولايميز اندرسن بشكل واضح بين إمبراطوريات تخضع لها شعوب أوروبية وتؤدي عملية الروسنة أو الألمنة فيها إلى الاصطدام مع وعي قومي محلي متمرد عليها وا? Not exactly a Marxist theory of nationalism but a deeply sympathetic investigation by a man who happens to have Marxists political leanings While showing how national identities are socially and historically constructed Anderson at the same time finds the phenomenon too powerful to be simply debunked via ideological critiue In this he reminds me a bit of Gershom Scholem writing on the Kabbalah Anderson has very little to say about Arab nationalism and as I read I wondered what he would make of the past decade and a half of wars in the Middle East Isis was a state of sorts but not a nation state It seems fair to say the scourge of state failure from Libya to Afghanistan has been related at least in part to a failure of nationalism Note how no one was willing to fight and die on behalf of Ira but after Shia religious leaders issued fatwas a force was amassed to combat Isis While probably its most extreme manifestations are being played out in the Middle East state failure does also seem to be a general phenomenon of our times not least in the advanced capitalist countries All this makes me wonder if the nation state will continue to be the hegemonic political formation of the 21st century