READER õ DOC Myths from Mesopotamia

TEXT Myths from Mesopotamia

READER õ DOC Myths from Mesopotamia Á The ancient civilization of Mesopotamia thrived between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates over 4000 years ago The myths collected here originally written in cuneiform on clay tablets include parallels with the biblical stories of the Creation and the Flood and the famous Epic of Gilgamesh the tale of a man of Stories of the Creation and the Flood and the famous Epic of Gilgamesh the tale of a man of great strength whose heroic uest for immortality is dashed through one moment of weakness Recent developments in Akkadian g A collection of stories from the beginning of civilisation20 June 2012 Okay before I begin by discussion of this book I will mention that the book itself was first published in 1989 and was edited by Stephanie Daley however the reason that I have gone for the original dates is because I am interested in the content of the ancient myths than any commentary or translation There are many translations of these texts available on the internet or even in book form and Daley is really only one of many or not so many as the case may be that have looked at and translated these texts Okay I cannot read cuneiform the Ancient Mesopotamian written language and I also suspect that there are numerous phrases and words that are difficult to translate however while I will give credit to the translators for allowing me to access these stories I generally do look beyond them to the original author whoever that may be Now I have already looked at three of the myths in this book elsewhere the Atrahasis the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Enuma Elish so I will not go over ground that I have previously explored However before I look at some of the other myths in this book there are a couple of things that I wish to point out First of all we encounter creatures with what appear to be untranslatable names such as the Mushussu Dragon Now there is a page of drawings page 316 of this edition which includes pictures of some but not all of these creatures so if you would like an idea of what they are referring to look at that page Anyway there is a Mushussu Dragon I originally wrote this prior to working out how to use HTMLHowever there are some instances where we don't even have a description; one case is that of Tiamat Now being a roleplayer of old I cannot help but envisage Tiamat as a multiheaded dragonThe truth is that there is no connection between the Dungeons and Dragons image of Tiamat above and the Mesopotamian image Maybe there is a drawing of her somewhere but from the Enuma Elish all we know is that she had a tail The myths I want to touch upon include Ishtar in the underworld Ishtar was a major female deity in Mesopotamian mythology probably connected to the female deities in other religions such as Isus or Hera however here we see her take on the role of Persephone in that she travels to the underworld However unlike the Greek myth she is not kidnapped but goes down herself and performs a hostile takeover It is interesting and we see a similar thing in the story of Nergal though that is a marriage in that to reach the underworld she must not only pass through seven gates but must perform a ritual at every gate which involves her removing an item of clothing so that when she does reach the underworld she is naked Maybe that is a representation that in death we are not able to take anything with us or maybe even a reflection that for us to be able to truly ascend or in her case descend but remember this is a power grab one must dispense of all worldly wealth which is what Ishtar has done We have another couple of myths the Entana and the Anzu which also seem to be stories of power grabs Unlike Ishtar and Nergal this is not a power grab in the underworld apparently taking authority over the realm of the dead but rather a power grab in heaven We see uite a few of them with Tiamat making a grab for power in the Elish Enuma The Anzu is detailed than the Elish Enuma as here we have Anzu stealing the Tablet of Destiny as a means of securing his authority in heaven It looks as if the authors of the Forgotten Realms Avatar Trilogy stole the idea from Mesopotamian mythology and it isn't the first time that the creators of Dungeons and Dragons have done that as per my comment on Tiamat above Now the Tablets of Destiny represent the law as handed down by the gods or at least the original creators of civilisation It appears that in stealing the tablets Anzu gives himself authority because he now is the one who holds the law This is the nature of power in our world The legislators create the law the executive enforces the law and the judiciary interprets the law It is also a theme that runs through the Bible in that he or she who holds the law has power and he or she who can create and enforce the law has power Now I will finish off with a word on the structure of these stories While some of the stories Gilgamesh and Enuma Elish seem to be complete in themselves others seem to simply be a bare bones outline There really does not seem to be much in the way of padding in these stories For instance in Nergal we have a list of seven gates which Nergal passed through to enter the underworld however there is no indication of what Nergal confronted when passing through the gates or what rituals were reuired to be performed as in the case of Ishtar My suspicion is that these clay tablets served a prods to memory that actually being the story itself and if they were spoken as is it would probably have taken no than 10 minutes to tell We see similar things in the Bible where we have a 10 minute sermon recorded though it is likely that the writer only noted the salient points that we needed to know or understand The classic example is the Sermon on the Mount The Bible seems to suggest that Jesus taught a lot longer than what is recorded in Matthew and Luke I suggest that the same is the case here This is probably also a good explanation as to why the stories seem to change My final comment will be on the last myth in this book and that is Erra and Ishum At the very end of this story we have what could be considered an Ancient Assyrian copyright notice Assurbanipal pretty much says that this story was written by him and woah betide anybody that attempts to plagerise his work It seems as if copyright and plagerism were as important back then as it is today Oh and I should also mention that a number of names such as Marduk appear in the Bible as well though they tend to refer to blind death and dumb idols That is not surprising because we are talking about people who at the time that the biblical account was written were long dead Okay while a persons legacy may have an influence on future history such as Socrates praying to them and asking them for help is pointless they are dead What the Bible is doing is not undermining any reality that may have existed for these particular people but rather pointing out the fruitlessness of ancestor worship If there is only one true God and this one true God can hear and answer prayers it is futile to pray to a dead person who in reality cannot respond

Anonymous ´ DOC

Rammar and lexicography mean that this new translation complete with notes a glossary of deities place names and key terms and illustrations of the mythical monsters featured in the text will replace all other versio I've been reading mythology since I was a kid and I'd read most of these tales before but this is a superior presentation Most of the introductory and explanatory information in other books reads like a professor speaking to students Here we have a writer talking to readers I appreciated that very much For people who like stories from antiuity this is a fun read For those who prefer current best sellers don't bother The fragmentary nature of the stories will irritate you But if you like Greek mythology for instance this will be a natural expansion of your literary experience

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Myths from Mesopotamia Creation the Flood Gilgamesh and OthersThe ancient civilization of Mesopotamia thrived between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates over 4000 years ago The myths collected here originally written in cuneiform on clay tablets include parallels with the biblical Myths from Mesopotamia Creation the Flood Gilgamesh and Others Anonymous Stephanie Dalley EditorThe ancient civilization of Mesopotamia thrived between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates over 4000 years ago The myths collected here originally written in cuneiform on clay tablets include parallels with the biblical stories of the Creation and the Flood and the famous Epic of Gilgamesh the tale of a man of great strength whose heroic uest for immortality is dashed through one moment of weaknessMyths Atrahasis The Epic of Gilgamesh standard and old version The Descent of Ishtar to the Underworld Nergal and Ereshkigal standard and Amarna version Adapa Etana Anzu standard version and Old Babylonian version The Epic of Creation Theogony of Dunnu Erra and Ishum Atra Hasis exceedingly wise is the protagonist of an 18th century BC Akkadian epic recorded in various versions on clay tablets The Atra Hasis tablets include both a creation myth and a flood account which is one of three surviving Babylonian deluge stories The name Atra Hasis also appears on one of the Sumerian king lists as king of Shuruppak in the times before a floodThe Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about Bilgamesh Sumerian for Gilgamesh king of Uruk dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur c 2100 BC These independent stories were later used as source material for a combined epic in Akkadian The first surviving version of this combined epic known as the Old Babylonian version dates to the 18th century BC and is titled after its incipit Shūtur eli sharrī Surpassing All Other Kings Only a few tablets of it have survived The later standard version dates from the 13th to the 10th centuries BC and bears the incipit Sha naba īmuru He who Saw the Abyss in modern terms He who Sees the Unknown Approximately two thirds of this longer twelve tablet version have been recovered Some of the best copies were discovered in the library ruins of the 7th century BC Assyrian king AshurbanipalInanna is an ancient Mesopotamian goddess associated with love beauty sex desire fertility war justice and political power She was originally worshipped in Sumer and was later worshipped by the Akkadians Babylonians and Assyrians under the name Ishtar She was known as the ueen of Heaven and was the patron goddess of the Eanna temple at the city of Uruk which was her main cult center She was associated with the planet Venus and her most prominent symbols included the lion and the eight pointed star Her husband was the god Dumuzid later known as Tammuz and her sukkal or personal attendant was the goddess Ninshubur who later became the male deity PapsukkalNergal Nirgal or Nirgali was a deity worshipped throughout Mesopotamia Akkad Assyria and Babylonia with the main seat of his worship at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell Ibrahim Other names for him are Erra and IrraIn Mesopotamian mythology Ereshkigal ueen of the Great Earth was the goddess of Kur the land of the dead or underworld in Sumerian mythology In later East Semitic myths she was said to rule Irkalla alongside her husband Nergal Sometimes her name is given as Irkalla similar to the way the name Hades was used in Greek mythology for both the underworld and its ruler and sometimes it is given as Ninkigal lit Lady of the Great Earthتاریخ نخستین خوانش ماه آگوست سال 1992 میلادیعنوان اساطیر آشوری و بابلی؛ از چهار هزار سال پیش از امروز؛ نویسنده ناشناس؛اسطوره ی اتره هسیس خرد بیش از حد این اسطوره به این ترتیب آغاز میشود که خدایان همه ی کارهای سخت را انجام میدهند، به کندن کانالها و تمیز کردن آنها میپردازند، در حالیکه آن کارها را دوست ندارند پس از گذشت سه هزار و ششصد سال به این نتیجه میرسند که به اندازه ی کافی کار کرده اند، و خود را در برابر «انلیل» مسلح میکنند «انلیل» از اینکه در نیمه های شب، تهدید شده ناخشنود است، و چهره اش همانند «درخت گز» زرد میشود وی خدایان بزرگ را گرد میآورد، تا حرف آنها را بشنود و آنها تصمیم م گیرند که «بیلیت ایلی»، الهه ی زهدان، میرندگان را بیافریند، تا از آن پس، «میرندگان» همه ی کارهای سخت را انجام دهند او اینکار را میکند و «هفت مرد» و «هفت زن» را میآفریند از این گروه کوچک جمعیت عظیمی پدید میآید که از نظر «انلیل» بیش از حد زیاد است برای نابودی آنها «انلیل»، طاعون، خشکسالی، و قحطی را آزمایش میکند، «اتره هسیس» اطمینان میدهد، که آنها عمل نخواهند کرد پس از گذشت شش سال، مردم دختران خود را میخورند، و دیگر نمیتوانند کارهای سختی که برای آن آفریده شده اند را، انجام دهند «انکی» و «انلیل»، درباره ی بهترین روشی که باید در پیش بگیرند، با هم به منازعه برمیخیزند «انلیل» تصمیم میگیر،د یک کردار بد انجام دهد توفان، و «انکی» به «اتره هسیس» هشدار میدهد، و درباره ی قایقی که باید ساخته شود، به او رهنمودهای مشخص میدهد، و به او اطلاع میدهد، که توفان به مدت «هفت روز»، ادامه خواهد یافت متاسفانه در اوج حادثه، خلاء بزرگی، در حدود پنجاه و هشت سطر وجود دارد، و داستان در نقطه ای از سر گرفته میشود این حماسه با یک سرود مذهبی موجز به پایان میرسد که احتمالاً توسط «انلیل» خوانده میشود ما چگونه توفان نازل کردیم اما یک انسان از این فاجعه جان به در برد شما رایزن خدایان هستید؛ من در فرامین شما تناقض آفریدم بگذار «ایگی گی» به این آواز گوش دهد تا شما را ستایش کند و بگذار آنها از بزرگی شما گویند من آواز توفان را بر همه ی مردم خواهم خواند گوش کنید پایانحماسه ی «گیلگامش» یا حماسه ی «گیلگَمِش» در سومری حماسه ی «بیلگمیش» یکی از کهنترین و نامدارترین آثار حماسی ادبیات دوران تمدن باستان است، که در منطقه ی میان‌رودان بین النهرین، شکل گرفته‌ است کهنترین متون موجود مرتبط با این حماسه، به میانه ی هزاره ی سوم پیش از میلاد مسیح می‌رسد، که به زبان سومری است از این حماسه نسخه‌ هایی به زبان‌های «اَکدی» و «بابِلی» و «آشوری» موجود است این حماسه در سال 1870 میلادی توسط «جورج اسمیت» ترجمه و منتشر شده‌ است برگردان پارسایی این حماسه، نخست به دست «داوود منشی‌زاده» و سپس توسط «احمد شاملو» صورت گرفته، که در کتاب هفته چاپ شد، و بعدها «نشر چشمه» آن را به چاپ رسانده‌ است ا شربیانی